Zipporah Iheozor‐Ejiofor, Helen V Worthington, Tanya Walsh, Lucy O'Malley, Jan E Clarkson, Richard Macey, Rahul Alam, Peter Tugwell, Vivian Welch, Anne‐Marie Glenny
Plain language summary: Water fluoridation to prevent tooth decay
Tooth decay is a worldwide problem affecting most adults and children. Untreated decay may cause pain and lead to teeth having to be removed. In many parts of the world, tooth decay is decreasing. Children from poorer backgrounds still tend to have greater levels of decay. Fluoride is a mineral that prevents tooth decay. It occurs naturally in water at varying levels. Fluoride can also be added to the water with the aim of preventing tooth decay. Fluoride is present in most toothpastes and available in mouthrinses, varnishes and gels. If young children swallow too much fluoride while their permanent teeth are forming, there is a risk of marks developing on those teeth. This is called ‘dental fluorosis’. Most fluorosis is very mild, with faint white lines or streaks visible only to dentists under good lighting in the clinic. More noticeable fluorosis, which is less common, may cause people concern about how their teeth look.
We carried out this review to evaluate the effects of fluoride in water (added fluoride or naturally occurring) on the prevention of tooth decay and markings on teeth (dental fluorosis).
We reviewed 20 studies on the effects of fluoridated water on tooth decay and 135 studies on dental fluorosis. The evidence is up to date at 19 February 2015.
Nineteen studies assessed the effects of starting a water fluoridation scheme. They compared tooth decay in two communities around the time fluoridation started in one of them. After several years, a second survey was done to see what difference it made. Around 70% of these studies were conducted before 1975. Other, more recent studies comparing fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities have been conducted. We excluded them from our review because they did not carry out initial surveys of tooth decay levels around the time fluoridation started so were unable to evaluate changes in those levels since then. We reviewed one study that compared tooth decay in two fluoridated areas before fluoridation was stopped in one area. Again, after several years, a second survey was done to see what difference it made.
Around 73% of dental fluorosis studies were conducted in places with naturally occurring – not added – fluoride in their water. Some had levels of up to 5 parts per million (ppm).
Our review found that water fluoridation is effective at reducing levels of tooth decay among children. The introduction of water fluoridation resulted in children having 35% fewer decayed, missing and filled baby teeth and 26% fewer decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth. We also found that fluoridation led to a 15% increase in children with no decay in their baby teeth and a 14% increase in children with no decay in their permanent teeth. These results are based predominantly on old studies and may not be applicable today.
Within the ‘before and after’ studies we were looking for, we did not find any on the benefits of fluoridated water for adults.
We found insufficient information about the effects of stopping water fluoridation.
We found insufficient information to determine whether fluoridation reduces differences in tooth decay levels between children from poorer and more affluent backgrounds.
Overall, the results of the studies reviewed suggest that, where the fluoride level in water is 0.7 ppm, there is a chance of around 12% of people having dental fluorosis that may cause concern about how their teeth look.
Quality of the evidence
We assessed each study for the quality of the methods used and how thoroughly the results were reported. We had concerns about the methods used, or the reporting of the results, in the vast majority (97%) of the studies. For example, many did not take full account of all the factors that could affect children’s risk of tooth decay or dental fluorosis. There was also substantial variation between the results of the studies, many of which took place before the introduction of fluoride toothpaste. This makes it difficult to be confident of the size of the effects of water fluoridation on tooth decay or the numbers of people likely to have dental fluorosis at different levels of fluoride in the water.